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Volume 1 Issue 1
Nikolaos TZIORAS

The Internet as an Important Tool in the Tourism Industry and its Use in Customer Service

The tourism sector is one of the most important business sectors in Greece. The term “online travel agency” refers to the transfer to the Internet of all or part of the tourism services offered by a real travel agency. The purpose of this study was to discuss the role of the Internet as an important tool in the tourism industry by presenting the ways it is used in customer service. The study focuses on an online travel agency. The methodology of the study was based on the collection of secondary data, which was collected through articles in journals as well as through official web sites. Specifically, the study discussed the use of the Internet and its importance in the field of tourism, and presented and analyzed the features and functions of an online travel agency, focusing on the basic services of an online travel agency, the subsystem of the customers, the provider’s subsystem and the subsystem of the intermediaries. In addition, a standardized online travel agency system was...

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Nikolaos TZIORAS

The Role of Environmental Management in Tourism Marketing Development as a Means of Destination Promotion

The aim of this article is to study the role of environmental management in the development of tourism marketing as a means of promotion and development of tourist destinations. Initially, there is an attempt to theoretically approach the concept of tourism marketing and then the risks are presented and the problems involved in the implementation of tourism marketing and tourism marketing organization. The article continues with the study of the behavior of the environment in tourism marketing focusing on tourist attraction incentives, the concept of tourism, the concept of the destination image and the expectations of tourists. The article concludes that the various marketing stimuli and not only affect the above-mentioned purchasing process of the individual while they are introduced into the consumer’s black box where they are processed. The result of this process is the choices the buyer will make about the good (product or service), the brand, the supplier, the time and the...

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HERYANTO Evo RAMADHONI

Marketing Strategy for Rahn Products and Transactions at a Indonesian Bank

The aims of this research were (1) to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of sharia unit Nagari Bank rahn products. (2) to analyze the transaction process of the Bank Nagari sharia rahn’s transaction process, and (3) to understand and analyze barriers and constraints in slowing Bank Nagari's rahn transactions. To determine the right strategy in order to increase sharia rahn sales at the Padang Branch of Bank Nagari Sharia, descriptive analysis was used, namely through SWOT analysis. The results of this study obtained the main constraints faced by Bank Nagari Sharia Unit in marketing rahn products related to weak socialization, lack of promotional activities, appropriate facilities and infrastructure. The strategies that must be developed include aggressive and diversified strategies.

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Kurnia ASNI NASIR Mukhlis YUNUS NURDASILA

Service Quality of Internet Banking from an Indonesian Perspective

The objective of this study is to test and analyze the influence of trust on a technology used for internet banking and its impact on customers’ interest to use internet banking. The fieldwork chosen for this research is the internet banking industry in Indonesia. However, the research focused on Aceh and North Sumatra’s big cities that are Banda Aceh and Medan because both cities have the largest number of internet banking customers. The variables that have been selected for analysis and review to uncover the phenomena that have been developed in this study are: ‘Customer beliefs on technology reliability’, ‘Customer acceptance of IT Value’ and ‘Converting intention on Internet Banking (IB)’. The population is the main subject on which the researchers focus their study to examine specific parameters, and then be able to draw conclusions (Hair et al., 2010). In this paper, the study group is represented by internet banking customers from Aceh and North Sumatra regions, totaling 531...

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Daniel MURPHY

The Seal of Approval. Introducing the Third-Party Seal Model

The use of third-party seals within marketing and advertising materials is a long-standing industry practice used by marketers worldwide. And while the effectiveness of seals as a marketing and advertising tactic has been widely studied, to date, no single model has been developed to predict the impact of seals on consumer purchase intent. To uncover what impact seals really have, two online surveys were conducted to understand how aware of seals consumers are, how credible they perceive them to be, and what impact they have on purchase intent. The results of these surveys reveal that the success of a seal is dependent of the consumers knowledge of the brand being marketed, their awareness of the third-party seal being applied in marketing material, and the seals ability to convey information important to the consumer in differentiating offerings. These results have also been applied to the Third-Party Seal Model, a three-step process which allows marketers to select third-party seals...

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Mahmoud ABDEL HAMID SALEH Abdullah Mohammed ALHIDARI Abdulrahman AL-MANSOUR AbdulElah AL-KHUDHAIR

Health Awareness and Price Sensitivity as Predictors of Consumer’s Purchase Attitude Towards Soft Drinks

This study investigates the association of both health hazards awareness and price sensitivity of soft drinks with consumer’s purchase attitude in Saudi Arabian market. The study also investigates whether there is a moderating role for each of consumer’s gender, age, education, and monthly income on the two studied relationships. The study has been conducted on 865 respondents of soft drinks consumers in Saudi Arabia and an online self-administered survey has been used to collect primary data from the participants. The study findings revealed a statistically significant negative associations of both soft drinks’ health hazards awareness and price sensitivity with consumer’s purchase attitude. Heath hazards awareness is higher than the price sensitivity in predicting the consumer’s purchase attitude. Hence, the consumer’s attitude is more responsive to health hazards awareness than the price sensitivity. The study also found that consumer’s gender, age, education, and income do not...

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Mihaela ȘTIR

Product Quality Evaluation in Physical Stores versus Online Stores

In Romania, the value of online shopping reached 2.8 billion in 2017, 40% more than in 2016, being one of the highest increases in the European Union. However, the e-commerce market value is still small compared to other European countries, one of the main reasons that people prefer not to buy online is mistrust in the quality of the products offered. In order to gain insights into the criteria used by Romanian consumers to evaluate product quality, we conducted eight in depth interviews. The results show that there are a lot of similarities between attributes used to evaluate product quality in a physical store and attributes used to evaluate product quality in an online store. Meanwhile, the differences consists in the presence of customer reviews as the most relevant attribute for the online stores and price as the most relevant attribute for physical stores.

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Yesita Windi WUISAN Fulgentius Danardana MURWANI SUHARTO S.M.

Competitiveness Of Export Production Custom House Of Minahasa In North Sulawesi

The purpose of this research is to understand the extent of the business of Minahasa Cultural House and how it can compete in international market, particularly in facing other competitors while maintaining its uniqueness and cultural value. The researchers used a qualitative approach, in addition to the case-study method. The data used in this research were both primary and secondary data. The data collection was achieved through observation technique, interview, and documentation. The data analysis implied three steps, namely (1) data reduction, (2) data display, (3) conclusions. The results of this research show the main factors that will help achieve the competitiveness of Minahasa Cultural House to other business competitors are: condition factor, demand factor, industrial-related factor, and the government’s role. The key factor highlighted in this research that influences the competitiveness is the condition factor, such as the quality of the product, price of the product...

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Singgih SANTOSO Budi SUTEDJO DHARMA OETOMO

Influence of Motivation and Self-Efficacy on Entrepreneurial Intention to Run a Business

Nowadays, amid increasingly tight competition in the business environment and the difficulties students are experiencing in getting new jobs, being an entrepreneur is increasingly in high demand among college graduates. The advancement of information technology has enabled many jobs to be carried out efficiently. Moreover, the dissemination of knowledge takes place quickly and widely, so that one's interest to start up a business by utilizing information technology is also increasing. The purpose of this research is to a test research model that proposes that self-efficacy and motivation will affect students’ intentions to become entrepreneurs. In general, self-efficacy is a condition in which individuals believe that a behavior is easy or difficult to achieve, including experiences and obstacles that individuals consider; while motivation leads to entrepreneurial activities that can be interpreted as a stimulus that can encourage someone to run a business. The research design is...

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Simona VINEREAN

Content Marketing Strategy. Definition, Objectives and Tactics

The interactivity dimension of the internet has allowed the customer to be a part of the marketing of any brand, product, services, or other entity. To this extent, digital inbound marketing encourages a customer-centric perspective in which organizations have to focus on helping consumers and involving them in the value-delivering process. An important component of digital inbound marketing that creates value and engagement for consumers is content marketing. The aim of this paper was to provide an examination of ‘content marketing’ and to gain understanding of the key dimensions of this digital marketing strategy, with its underlying tactics that can be implemented by companies in online environments. The insights presented in this study contribute to the content marketing strategy, as a viable strategy to other interruptive marketing techniques.

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Karen M. HOOD Christine M. KOWALCZYK Christopher D. HOPKINS Daniel PADGETT

A Multi-Method Approach to Understanding Behavior Change. The Case of Texting and Driving

Distracted driving, specifically texting and driving, has become a nationwide public health problem in the U.S. with negative, and potentially fatal consequences. In an effort to combat the growing problem, non-profit organizations, corporations, and the federal government have all stepped in to try to increase public awareness and persuade drivers to cease texting while driving. These efforts have not had the desired impact as texting and driving has continued to increase in recent years. This research investigates the potential that the messages used to curb texting and driving behavior might not be properly constructed. Specifically, we test the potential for message sponsor and self-relevance of the message to influence message outcomes. Our results suggest that messages sponsored by a combination of company and government that are self-relevant to viewers will have different outcomes than other messages. We identify practical and theoretical implications as well as future...

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Oana DURALIA

Culinary Tourism. A New Trend on the Tourism Market

Seen as a new form of manifestation of the behavior of the consumer of tourism products and services, culinary tourism has recorded an ascending trending the last years, with a positive forecast for the following years. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is the orientation and encouragement of the tourist services providers to adopt regional development strategies that harness traditional local resources and products in a context where the contemporary consumer no longer only pursues the acquisition of products and services to meet their needs, but also looks forward to new experiences that are a delight for the senses. Against this background, the present paper aims to highlight some of the characteristics of culinary tourism and to customize some of the dimensions of consumer behavior oriented towards this form of tourism, in an economy where the tertiary sector, and specifically the tourism sector, play a leading role both in Europe and worldwide.

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IKRAMUDDIN Muhammad ADAM Hizir SOFYAN FAISAL

The Relationship of Perceived Value, Service Quality, Brand Trust, and Brand Loyalty: A Literature Review

The concept of loyalty has evolved as an important issue in the world of marketing as companies are focusing their strategy in retaining customers and increasing their sales. The purpose of this study is to re-evaluate the involvement of various factors related to the perception of value, service quality, brand trust and brand loyalty in the industry of mobile phones through literature review and examination of previous research. Some studies have found that the observed variables are the key drivers of brand loyalty. However, other opinions are also presented for their different perspectives and a broader view of the research topic.

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Bogdan AVRAM

Ancillaries in the Aviation Industry. Importance, Trends, Going Digital

In 2016, the global airline industry reached almost 70 billion dollars in ancillaries (up from 60 billion dollars in 2015), while the ancillary revenues on a global scale reached a 10% share of overall airline revenue, according to Ideaworks, a consulting firm that measures airline ancillary revenues. This research aims to investigate how airline companies use ancillaries in their favour to add value and revenue sources to the booking engine, offer flexibility to their passengers, increase revenues and customer satisfaction, interact with passengers at all touch points to create commercial opportunities and differentiate their brand.

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Beby Karina Fawzea SEMBIRING Paham GINTING RISMAYANI Ritha Fatimah DALIMUNTHE Syamsul BAHRI

Customer Satisfaction as a Mediator Variable between Service Quality and Customer Loyalty for PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk Aceh Province, Indonesia

This study aims to analyze the effect of service quality toward satisfaction and customer loyalty for PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk, Aceh Province. The article also analyses customer satisfaction as a mediator variable between service quality and customer loyalty. The sampling technique in the study was based on cluster and convenience sampling with corresponding criteria; each respondent has a bank account and saving for at least one year. The primary data were collected from respondents using the structured questionnaires. A total of 220 questionnaires were distributed in five branch offices of PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk operating in Aceh Province, namely the branchs of Lhokseumawe, Bireuen, Langsa, Sigli and Meulaboh. The results showed that service quality has a significant and positive effect toward satisfaction and customer loyalty for PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk Aceh Province. Meanwhile, the variable of customer satisfaction can mediate the effect of service quality toward customer loyalty...

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D. SARAVANAKUMAR G. KATHIRAVAN M. THIRUNAVUKKARASU S. PRIYADHARSINI W. GANPAT

Ordered Probit Analysis of Consumers’ Preferences for Milk and Meat Quality Attributes in the Emerging Cities of Southern India

In order to assess consumer preferences for milk and meat quality attributes, a study was carried out in two Second-Tier cities of Tamil Nadu. Personal interviews were done to collect the data from 160 respondents chosen through a multistage sampling procedure in each of the two cities selected for this study. Ordered Probit model fitted for the attributes of milk showed that: family size had a significant positive preference towards texture, low fat and low price of milk, educated consumers paid greater attention to taste, safety, flavour, packaging and low fat attributes of milk and low income consumers paid less importance on most of the attributes of milk. Ordered Probit model for meat revealed that as the family size increased, the consumers were likely to give more importance to ageing and tenderness and less importance to leanness of meat. Male consumers paid greater attention to colour and females were none concerned with tenderness, cooking quality and price. As the education...

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Simona VINEREAN

Importance of Strategic Social Media Marketing

Technological innovation has grown at an unprecedented rate over the past couple of decades, creating multiple opportunities for marketing in online settings. The proliferation of social media helps customers become more empowered and engaged in their brand interactions, while also providing them with new tools in their search, evaluation, choice and purchases of marketing offerings. Consequently, these developments are influencing marketing practices, both strategically, and tactically. Nowadays, social media has developed in an essential part of marketing strategy for its ability to generate co-created value, to interactively connect brands to consumers, to monitor brand-related discussions and sentiments, to guide consumers in the decision-making process, to instigate customer-to-customer interactions, and transform consumers into brand advocates. The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic opportunities of social media marketing for organizations. By providing a...

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Umbas KRISNANTO

Empirical Study on the Relationships of Internet Banking Quality, Customer Value, and Customer Satisfaction

The purpose of this conducted study was to test the direct and indirect effects of internet banking quality and customer value to customer satisfaction. This study uses descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis to examine these relationships. The study is based on a survey conducted with respondents who use internet banking in their day-to-day activities, and all questionnaire items are deemed valid and reliable. For data analysis, the descriptive analysis for the indicators, dimensions, and variables proved to be in a good category. Research findings and implications of the regression analysis show that internet banking quality and customer value had a greater direct impact on customer satisfaction, rather the partial relationships of these variables to satisfaction. In the partial relationships, customer value has a higher influence on customer satisfaction, than internet banking quality. As a research recommendation, banks should provide a more humanistic internet...

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Marius Sebastian RÜCKER

A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of Creative Thinking on Marketing Creativity

Due to the rapid technological development and a globally competitive business environment, creative marketing methods become increasingly important for a unique value proposition. As a result, the aim of this research paper is to critically evaluate the influence of creative thinking on marketing creativity. In order to evaluate this correlation, examples of creative marketing concepts in traditional marketing and online marketing campaigns are examined and analysed in regards to potentially required creative thinking processes. This evaluation led to the conclusion that creative thinking influences marketing creativity in a holistic way by creating experiences, forming relationships, and addressing large audiences in a cost-efficient way.

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Sutarlan SULISTIYANI

Performance Marketing Model through Acculturation Innovation and Market Orientation in the Bakery Industry

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have their own superiority in which they pervade not only in terms of human resources, but also in their role in national economic development. The aim of this study is to develop acculturation innovation and competing superiority for increasing the marketing development of the bakery business actors in Central Java. This study’s sample consists of 161 respondents who are bakery business owners from Central Java. By using the purposive sampling technique, several criteria were considered for the SMEs representatives from the bakery industry sample, such as the SMEs must be certified at Disperindag, have at least one employee, and invest at least IDR 1.000.000,- . The analyzing method that is used in this study is SEM. The result of the study shows the market orientation with specific dimensions, such as gaining information about the customers’ needs, competitors’ powers, and functions’ coordination affected competitors’ superiority, and...

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Simona VINEREAN

Branding Strategies for Social Media Marketing

Companies are increasingly recognizing the value of social media marketing for their implication in developing and increasing the value of a brand in online environments. As a result, companies devote time and effort to engage with current and potential consumers on social media platforms and co-create of value with brand advocates. This study focuses on social media marketing as part of digital inbound marketing, its uses for organizations and its potential for branding in online settings. These brand-related social media tactics and strategies involve initiatives such as ongoing business-to-consumer conversations, content that is created and shared on social media, consumer engagement experiences, and a brand persona that invites consumers to co-create the brand in online settings, it promotes interaction, participation, and collaboration with consumers. This study concludes with some recommendations on future research.

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Myriam ERTZ Fabien DURIF Manon ARCAND

Business in the Hands of Consumers: A Scale for Measuring Motivation to Resell Products Online

The web channel is increasingly a central aspect of the second-hand economy and, as such, favours also more sustainable post-consumption processes. This is why the field of online reselling appears increasingly important. Besides, the ever broadening scope of online reselling is key to the success of new online intermediaries that position themselves in the broader movement of collaborative consumption. While, consumers’ attachment for secondhand exchanges is not new, they have largely embraced its online declination. In response to these evolutions in the online retail environment, traditional retail companies have therefore started to create online consumer marketplaces in which consumers exchange goods by themselves. In order to best adapt such online marketplaces to consumers, it is therefore critically important to gain a better understanding of the driving forces behind online reselling. At present, knowledge about what motivates consumers to resell products online is limited...

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Charles ADUSEI Charles TENKORANG Isaac TWENEBOAH-KODUAH

Sales Territory Management and Distributor Performance in the Telecommunications Industry in Ghana

The mobile telecommunications in Ghana is a highly competitive market which faces a problem of retaining their customers due to low switching cost. The purpose of this study was to investigate sales territory management and distributor performance of Vodafone in Sunyani. The population for the study was staff and retailers of Vodafone product and services. Multi-Stage sampling approach was employed for the study. A well-structured questionnaire and interview guide were used in collecting data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics, One Sample t-test, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance and Pearson Correlation Matrix were used to analyse the data. Results revealed that there was effective supervision of the sales territory representatives by the sales managers. The retailer’s confirmed the receipt of their requested orders from the distributor when the need arose. The sales territory representatives confirmed that sales managers involved them in developing new or adjusted...

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Fatos UKAJ

Development and Creation of Competitive Advantages in the Function of Marketing Services in Financial Institutions

The marketing of the financial services by financial institution is regarded as an easier job. This is due to the fact that, in most cases, when a client is gained, he/she remains loyal to the institution on a long term. Nowadays, taking into consideration the needs of the consumers - clients who are undergoing a constant change - financial institutions are faced with a necessity to have the required knowledge and information regarding what and how to meet the needs of their clients. Financial institutions have reached a stage of adapting their daily activities with the demands of their clients. Thus, this is due to the available information which deals with the needs of the clients, opportunities of financial institution themselves, structural changes in the services provided, and the changes in the market which includes competition. This paper will strive to present the stages of the marketing development in financial institutions through the acquisition of knowledge regarding the...

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M. Dharma Tuah Putra NASUTION Prana Ugiana GIO Yossie ROSSANTY

Does Religious Commitment Matter in the Relationship Between Brand Personality and Purchase Intention on Halal Brand? Evidence from Consumers in Indonesia

The purpose of this study is to investigate a model of brand personality and the effect of a halal brand on purchase intentions, particularly, by highlighting of religious commitment mediated between brand personality, and purchase intentions on a Halal brand. This study uses a path analysis with the main concepts of brand personality, religious commitment, and purchase intentions. The sampling method used non-probability sampling. Data were collected from 120 respondents at several supermarkets in North Sumatera, Indonesia. Findings of the study indicated that brand personality does not have a significant and positive effect on the purchase intention of a Halal brand. However, the role of religious commitment is significant in mediating the relationship between brand personality and purchase intentions of a Halal brand. Finally, the results of this study also showed the total effects between brand personality, purchase intentions, and religious commitment. Dimensions of brand...

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Arnela BEVANDA Brano MARKIĆ Sanja BIJAKŠIĆ

Customer Intelligence Analytics on Social Networks

Discovering needs, habits and consumer behavior is the primary task of marketing analytics. It is necessary to integrate marketing and analytical skills with IT skills. Such knowledge integration allows access to data (structured and unstructured), their analysis and finding out information about the opinions, attitudes, needs and behavior of customers. In the paper is set the hyphotesis that software tools can collect data (messages) from social networks, analyze the content of messages and get to know the attitudes of customers about a product, service, tourist destination with the ultimate goal of improving customer relations. Experimental results are based on the analysis of the content of social network Facebook by using the package and function R language. This language showed a satisfactory application and development power in analysis of textual data on social networks for marketing analytics.

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NURDASILA Abdul RAHMAN LUBIS M. Shabri ABD. MAJID Naufal BACHRI

Credibility and Consumer Behavior of Islamic Bank in Indonesia: A Literature Review

The concept “credibility” has become significant attention from academics and practitioners because it played an important role in creating and maintaining consumer behavior. This study uses twenty- seven references relates to credibility, customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Several studies have discussed the relationship between credibility and consumer behavior and also elaborated dimensions of credibility. It also presented the shortcomings of current research and the trends for future study in Islamic banking.

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Abderrahmane CHENINI Sabrina ELBACHIR

The Emotional States of the Consumer in Stores: The PA (Pleasure-Arousal) Adapted to the Algerian Context

The purpose of this paper is the proposal of a scale for measuring emotional states experienced within a point of sale, for non-English speaking consumers. Since the validity of the measuring instruments may affect the relevance and quality of managerial decisions, the development of a sufficiently reliable measurement that take into account the specificity of a country becomes necessary. Following a literature review that allowed us to highlight existing measuring instruments of emotional states and their disadvantages, we have developed a measurement scale based on two emotional dimensions: pleasure and arousal (stimulation). Following the Churchill Paradigm, the results of our analysis show that the reliability and construct validity of our scale were improved.

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Nuri WULANDARI

Brand Experience in Banking Industry: Direct and Indirect Relationship to Loyalty

In marketing, the meaning of value is rapidly shifting from service and relationships to experiences. It is believed that the traditional value proposition is no longer effective to compete in the market and to gain customer loyalty. By adapting the brand experience model, this study tries to validate the model in the banking industry, which is currently facing intense competition to retain customers. The brand experience construct is tested for its direct and indirect relationship toward loyalty. It is postulated that satisfaction and brand authenticity might be instrumental in mediating brand experience to loyalty. Research was conducted via in-depth interview and quantitative survey, targeting bank customers in Jakarta. The result confirmed that brand experience has direct and indirect contribution to loyalty in significant and positive manner. The research contributes in validating previous studies with a rare emphasis in banking sector. The result implies that brand experience is...

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Abdulrahman ALTHONAYAN Ayman ALHABIB Essa ALRASHEEDI Ghafar ALQAHTANI Mahmoud ABDEL HAMID SALEH

Customer Satisfaction and Brand Switching Intention: A Study of Mobile Services in Saudi Arabia

The purpose of the study is to investigate first, the relationship between the customer satisfaction and brand switching intention into the Saudi Arabian mobile-service market, and second, the association of service quality, customer service, service pricing, and value-added services with the customer satisfaction. Because of the difficulty of having a frame for the mobile-service customers from their providers, a convenience sample of 350 online respondents with the proper surveying techniques was used in data analysis and testing of the research hypotheses. The findings of the study confirm a significant negative relationship between customer satisfaction and brand switching intention. A 4% percent of the change in brand switching intention could be explained by the change in the customer satisfaction. Only three variables; customer service, service pricing, and service quality are critical determinants for mobile-service customer satisfaction. Customer service explained about 22%...

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Mark ANDERSON Peter MARTINS DA SILVA

Evaluations of Co-Brands: A Two-Country Comparison

This paper explores consumer reactions to a brand alliance, with perceptions of the parent brands, perceived fit between the brands and fit between product categories as the drivers. Drawing on previous work on co-brands (Simonin and Ruth, 1998; Baumgarth, 2000), two simultaneous studies of four consumer brand pairings were conducted in the UK (n=122) and Italy (n=125) using respondents from an online panel. Important differences between the studies are identified and possible cultural explanations for deviant outcomes are discussed.

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Alexandra VINEREAN

Loyal Employees. A Key Factor in the Success of a Company

The most important asset of any business is its employees. Given this fact, normally, every business should have a solid plan to make sure that its employees are satisfied professionally and are loyal to the company. Unfortunately, this is usually not the case. Many companies believe that if they have an excellent product or service that generates high incomes and employees should be content. Generally, employers try to guarantee that its employees will not leave by offering them different benefits, trainings and great compensation. But is that enough to ensure loyalty among staff members? According to different statistics: each year the average company loses 20-50% of its employee base, replacing a lost employee costs 150% of that person’s annual salary. These numbers highlight how important the retention and engagement of the employees are for the profitability of a company.

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Alin OPREANA Simona VINEREAN

Consumer Engagement in Online Settings: Conceptualization and Validation of Measurement Scales

This paper addresses the conceptualization, scale development and scale validation related to the study of consumer engagement in online settings. It first reviews this concept and draws attention to the multidimensionality of the construct, considering the underlying cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions of consumer engagement. Then, it presents the foundation of this concept in relationship marketing and adds support to this proposition. Further, it proposes the construction and psychometric assessment of a 37 scales that examine all three dimensions, based on an international sample of 110 respondents who engage with a brand on a social media network. Based on multiple and successive applications of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, 11 scales are developed showing strong evidence of reliability and validity measurement of consumer engagement in online settings. The final section includes a discussion of the academic contributions, managerial, implications of...

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Alin OPREANA Simona VINEREAN

A New Development in Online Marketing: Introducing Digital Inbound Marketing

Particularly in online settings, marketing is undergoing a transformation. Online business can no longer rely on traditional marketing tactics and campaigns to attract, retain and expand consumers because there is a transformation in how people interact with brands and companies, how they shop and buy in online and offline settings. Traditional marketing is no longer a viable option because it focuses on pushing a message out. In online business framework, a new marketing development has arisen, namely digital inbound marketing. This new marketing type is focused on attracting valuable consumers (potential, existing, or aspirational) that choose to interact with a particular company that provides them with something useful. In this paper, we propose a definition for digital inbound marketing and examine the online strategies associated with this concept: brand-focused marketing communications, content marketing, social media marketing, and search engine optimization.

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Alin OPREANA Iuliana CETINA Luigi DUMITRESCU Simona VINEREAN

Relationships among Hedonic and Utilitarian Factors and Exogenous and Endogenous Influences of Consumer Behavior in Tourism

Customer experience is gaining more and more attention from researchers. Particularly in tourism, this experiences may be determined by hedonic or utilitarian factors. However, there are other influences, both exogenous and endogenous, that may impact consumer behaviors in tourism. Thus, in this article, we explore the receptivity of consumers in terms of certain types of influences, exogenous and endogenous, to hedonic and utilitarian factors related to a tourism package. To examine these research questions, we employ exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling on a sample of 150 tourists from Europe and North America.

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Hui-Hsin HUANG

The Probability Model of Expectation Disconfirmation Process

This paper proposes a probability model to explore the dynamic process of customer’s satisfaction. Bases on expectation disconfirmation theory, the satisfaction is constructed with customer’s expectation before buying behavior and the perceived performance after purchase. The experiment method is designed to measure expectation disconfirmation effects and we also use the collection data to estimate the overall satisfaction and model calibration. The results show good fitness between the model and the real data. This model has application for business marketing areas in order to manage relationship satisfaction.

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Imane AMEUR Keltouma MAHI Youcef SOUAR

The Impact of Marketing Mix Elements on Customer Loyalty for an Algerian Telecommunication Company

The main aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the marketing mix elements and customer loyalty in Algeria Telecom company and to achieve these aspects we distributed a questionnaire to a random sample of the company’s customers so that we use structural equations modeling depending on the partial least squares approach “PLS” to analyze and test the search model. The study finds that product, process, and promotion have a positive and significant effect on customer loyalty.

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Jorge MONGAY

Service Quality Measurement Using SERVQUAL. An Applied Comparative Study on Customer Perceptions and Expectations under an International Approach

This research uses the methodology Servqual in order to measure the quality of service given by a public university in Barcelona (Spain) to its study abroad students. The analysis explores the results not only from traditional approach based in a expectations versus perceptions point of view but from a more specific approach offering profiles of study abroad students from 5 different nationalities. The research collects information from 622 questionnaires and it provides useful insights related to future strategies for improving satisfaction and service at the host institution.

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Maria Angeles GARCIA HARO Maria Pilar MARTINEZ RUIZ Ricardo MARTINEZ CANAS

The Effects of the Value Co-Creation Process on the Consumer and the Company

This article analyzes the concept of value co-creation, which has arisen due to the combination of various modern influences - including economic globalization, changes in consumers’ buying habits, and the emergence of the Internet and social media - that have changed the way companies innovate. These factors also have transformed the traditional marketing paradigm, such that companies must continually innovate to create and maintain long-term relationships with their consumers and thus competitive advantages. This study analyzes practices of co-creation and seeks to establish a theoretical research framework; the authors also identify the key effects and results of co-creation activities for both companies and consumers. By integrating situational and moderating variables, the proposed theoretical model covers multiple dimensions and offers a comprehensive approach to the topic.

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Alexandra VINEREAN

Motivators That Intervene in the Decision Making Process in Tourism

Being part of the tourism industries involves many researches and analyses in different periods of time, regarding different segments of consumers. Therefore, it is important to be aware of all the factors and motivators that influence a tourist to purchase a particular tourism services. These complex variables are crucial for the final purchase decision of an offer with emotional value for customers. This paper presents the principals motivators which intervene in the decision making process that should be acknowledged by marketers in order to provide the ideal tourism package.

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Alexandra VINEREAN

Buying Intentions Influenced by Various Determinants in Tourism

Marketing has acquired a central role in tourism because it helps organizations to create value in transactions with buyers. Thus, this important area of any business process is used to educate consumers, to add value to their experience in tourism, and to seek new ways to reward loyalty through innovative schemes (e.g., programs for frequent travelers). This paper presents the examination of the responses of 154 tourists in relation to their intention to purchase a travel package and the factors that are usually decisive in the decision making process regarding tourism services, factors that could also create the loyalty that any tourism enterprise can create through marketing.

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Augustine Egwu Ndu OKO Ohuonu Okwudiri NNANNA

Sales Promotion in the Marketing of Telecommunication Services in Nigeria: Impact Analysis

The adoption of sales promotion in the marketing of telecommunication services in Nigeria is common among the front line GSM service providers. This however does not yield the much assured increasing return on investment, hence is unprofitable and the required fund for the expansion of infrastructure base of operation is not earned, and serve rendition is as a result poor. Studying the impact of sales promotion on patronage based on the data sourced and analyzed using Likert’s ranking scale, questionnaire and analysis of variance (ANOVA), the work discerns and concludes that the high level of illiteracy based on quantitative rather than qualitative education high level of poverty as well as high rate of rural dwelling are challenges to the expansion of the level of consumption of telecommunication services even at the offer of sales promotion incentives. Recommended is a good quality marketing research with consumers as a trust point for efficiency in market segmentation as basic in...

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Bogdan AVRAM

A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the content (number of fans, posts, number of likes, the dynamics of comments, response rate) on the Facebook pages of Tarom, Blue Air, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, KLM International and Air Europa on a one week period (10th February – 18th February 2014) and successful practices on social media. The paper also aims to provide solutions for airlines to better connect with their passengers and effectively use the social media environment to increase sales and customer satisfaction.

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Hui-Hsin HUANG

Explorative Study on the Concept of Mind Shares: Confidence, Resistance and Loyalty

In practices and academics, the growth/decline of a brand or product sales is often measured with market shares. However, this method does not really gain insight into loyalty and perception of consumers toward brands and products. This paper proposes a concept of Mind Shares which combines confidence and resistance as the main contents of loyalty to establish a new theoretic foundation and develop the calculation method for the quantification of this model. The data from questionnaire survey showed that confidence and resistance are both positively correlated with loyalty, and these two variables are capable of predictability on loyalty. It is considered that this paper lays down the theoretic foundation of Mind Shares and contributes applications.

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Alin OPREANA Simona VINEREAN

Analyzing Mediators of the Customer Satisfaction – Loyalty Relation in Internet Retailing

This study explores the customer satisfaction – loyalty relation in the context of online shopping by introducing various mediators, such as trust, attitude, hedonic value, and utilitarian value. For data collection, we used an online consumer survey in relation to Internet retailing. In this paper we found empirical evidence that loyalty and satisfaction have a reciprocal relationship, but that mediators exist between satisfaction and loyalty. The findings of this study have consequences for customer relationship management, particularly in terms of retention, of the satisfied consumers in an e-shopping environment.

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Bogdan AVRAM

Using the Electronics Development Advantage in Creating a Buzz for the Airline Passengers

More and more airlines are trying to show their customers their ability to understand their needs, the market trends and the importance of technology in their lives. In response to the rapid development of the consumer electronics, the airline companies focus their attention on offering their customers the possibility to book a flight or check-in using a smartphone, spend time watching movies or be connected to the internet during the flight. Customers search for airlines who are more ”tech-geek” and opened to new technologies, which allows them to rate the airline companies through apps or connect more often with the airline through social-media. Technology has become an important part in developing and marketing the airline services for a better quality, more customer-focused and for better flight experience which ultimately makes the difference when choosing to fly an airline company.

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Mihai TICHINDELEAN

Models Used for Measuring Customer Engagement

The purpose of the paper is to define and measure the customer engagement as a forming element of the relationship marketing theory. In the first part of the paper, the authors review the marketing literature regarding the concept of customer engagement and summarize the main models for measuring it. One probability model (Pareto/NBD model) and one parametric model (RFM model) specific for the customer acquisition phase are theoretically detailed. The second part of the paper is an application of the RFM model; the authors demonstrate that there is no statistical significant variation within the clusters formed on two different data sets (training and test set) if the cluster centroids of the training set are used as initial cluster centroids for the second test set.

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Alexandra VINEREAN

The Influence of Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivators on Likelihood to Buy a Tourism Package

To fully understand the pattern of choice, it is important that any explanation of consumer behavior to be accompanied by a complete understanding of the interplay between a consumer’s functional goals and experiential preferences within the decision context. Consumer researchers have increasingly begun to investigate consumer choice based on distinctions that involve the purchase and consumption of goods for pleasure versus for more utilitarian and instrumental purposes. Consumers are often faced with these types of choices between hedonic and utilitarian alternatives that are at least partly driven by emotional desires rather than cold cognitive deliberations. This research approaches factor analysis and multiple linear regression in the context of 150 international respondents and their perception of hedonic and utilitarian motivators on likelihood to buy a tourism package.

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Alin OPREANA

Examining Online Shopping Services in Relation to Experience and Frequency of Using Internet Retailing

E-shopping has the potential to replace traditional in-store shopping. It is well perceived that information and communication technologies have great impacts on modern society - they are changing how and where we work, shop, and in general terms how we live our lives. In this study, we use a survey instrument to examine the association between experience level with Internet and e-shopping and consumers’ frequency of online purchasing, while considering sex as a passive influencer. We study these relationships in a multinomial logistic regression model that is aimed at online retailers to help them improve their understanding of their consumers’ characteristics and propensity to buy through Internet retailing. Tracking the online journey of consumers will help enhance the attractiveness of this new retailing medium to current and potential customers.

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Simona VINEREAN

The Impact of Customer Perceptions and Satisfaction on E-Loyalty

As Internet use continues to increase, companies have to emphasize the understanding of the implications of its use on long term purchase behavior, in terms of satisfaction and loyalty. Ultimately, companies should be interested in consumer perceptions and the factors that play a role in following a certain behavior over an extended period of time. Attaining a successful marketing program compels companies to fully connect with their targeted customers. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a new model that examines relationships between cognitive – affective – conative constructs in an e-shopping environment.

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